Experts answer questions about retaining rings and wave springs
Every year, hundreds of technical questions are submitted through Smalley's "Ask the Expert" page. The company's team of engineering experts answers the questions directly, but they also post them in a blog for sharing. This selection addresses some commonly asked questions about retaining rings and wave springs. Very useful info.
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Lube nozzles oil the wheels of aviation gearboxes
Gearboxes used in aviation and other similar demanding applications are specially designed, held to tight tolerances, and require precise and reliable lubrication. This is in contrast to how gearboxes in heavier, more industrial applications tend to be immersed in lubricant without the need for targeted lubrication. The delivery of precise, highly accurate (and in some cases screened lubricants) is usually provided by lube nozzles. The Lee Company, with over 70 years of experience in precision fluid control, is able to offer special nozzle designs to meet most requirements. Safety screens can be added for additional protection.
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Tech Tip: Why use flame-resistant adhesives?
Learn about the benefits of flame-retardant adhesive and potting systems, including how they mitigate the risks associated with smoke, toxicity, and flames. Several Master Bond epoxies have been formulated to meet the stringent UL94V-0 specification and pass the horizontal/vertical burn test per FAR standard 14 CFR 25.853 (a). These products feature non-halogenated fillers, have low smoke emissions, and are self-extinguishing.
Protect internal threads during paint and powder coating processes
New PEM PreTect thread masking plugs from Penn-Engineering will protect internal threads of self-clinching nuts and standoffs during paint and powder coating processes. The pre-installed silicone masking plugs -- supplied already in place -- have been designed for self-clinching blind standoffs, thru-hole standoffs, and nuts in thread sizes #4-40 to 1/4-20 and M3 to M6. Plugs can be augmented for thru-hole fastener types with a specially engineered stretched polyester film offering thread protection on the side opposite the plug. Plugs and film can be removed easily using a fine tip tool when processes are completed.
New 3M tape tackles high-temp fastening applications
Since 1980, 3M VHB Tapes have opened the door to faster and easier assemblies. Now, the new GPH series from 3M combines the extreme, permanent bonding power and convenience of 3M VHB Tapes with high-temperature resistance. It can withstand operating temperatures up to 450 F, with long-term durability in conditions up to 300 F. Users will experience excellent adhesion to high and medium surface energy materials, as well as coated or painted surfaces. 3M VHB Tapes, including the new GPH series, replace traditional mechanical fasteners, subsequently eliminating processes like drilling, grinding, refinishing, screwing, welding, and associated rework/clean-up.
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Top Tech Tip: Balanced retaining rings
Smalley's balanced feature statically balances the retaining ring. A series of slots, opposite the gap end, account for the missing material in the gap. This characteristic is very useful when the balance of the assembly is critical and it is necessary to reduce eccentric loading.
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Belt conveyor design program
ABB's new web-based Dodge Passport design tool allows users to select, quote, and order conveyor pulley assemblies complete with shafting and mounted bearings for bulk material-handling applications. Real-time pricing and availability enable customers to make cost-effective selections of readily available components. After selections are complete, Passport's add-to-order capability lets customers seamlessly convert selections into orders via the PT Place e-commerce platform.
Updated grippers for plastic materials
FIPA has upgraded its proven product line of sprue grippers for handling plastic material. The Series 90, 100, and 130 grippers now bear the red FIPA dot, which makes the gripper components immediately identifiable in installations. The Series 90 grippers reliably grip small sprues due to their high closing force, wide jaw opening, and compact design, while the Series 100 grippers are designed to securely grip medium to large sprues. The Series 130 grippers feature strong gripping force and a wide jaw opening, making them ideal for large sprues. FIPA grippers have a long life cycle due to their high-strength aluminum alloy housing and jaws, with a durable, corrosion-resistant anodized coating. FIPA also offers grippers with and without "part present" monitoring.
Inserts for plastic assemblies provide reusable metal threads
SI inserts from Penn-Engineering permanently install in plastic assemblies to provide durable and reusable metal threads for mating hardware and allow for repeated disassembly and re-attachment whenever required. By promoting quick and easy access to an assembly, SI inserts offer highly practical joining solutions in contrast to fixed and unyielding methods, such as adhesives or rivets. Repeated reuse will not damage the strong metal threads or compromise attachment integrity. Types include brass inserts and lead-free stainless steel and aluminum versions.
New food-grade high-performance PEEK polymers
To help OEMs meet the stringent regulatory and quality demands affecting the food equipment industry, Victrex is introducing a dedicated PEEK food-grade portfolio. Compared to metal components, the new VICTREX FG family of high-performing thermoplastics offers additional benefits in terms of cost effectiveness, productivity, and performance for OEMs -- and the neutral taste expected by consumers. In addition, with the adoption of Industry 4.0 technology, VICTREX PEEK can offer food and beverage manufacturers the opportunity to optimize efficiency and reduce production costs, when compared to the use of metals.
Structural adhesive offers high-temperature stability
DELO MONOPOX HT2860 achieves up to three times the strength at a temperature of 150 C compared to previous product generations. Ideal for bonding magnets in electric motors used in cars, drilling, milling tools, washing machines, as well as in many other applications, this new adhesive has a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 168 C. It achieves a strength of 18 MPa on sand-blasted aluminum at 150 C. This is up to three times higher than standard epoxy resins. The versatile epoxy resin can be heat-cured in an oven for 40 minutes at 150 C or by induction.
How specialized coatings can make mechanical parts harder for extreme industrial applications
Although bearings, gears, rollers, and other precision components are generally made of hardened steel or metal alloys, those used in high-load applications still can fail due to excessive wear, surface fatigue, pitting, galling, and corrosion. To address this problem, product engineers and component manufacturers often turn to specialized PVD (physical vapor deposition) coatings that can further harden the surface of these parts. Oerlikon Balzers provides solid solutions.
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Stainless steel multiple-joint hinges
JW Winco now offers GN 7237 Stainless Steel Multiple-Joint Hinges with internal mounting brackets and a maximum opening angle of 180 deg. These multi-joint hinges are installed on the inside of flaps, hatches, or compartment doors to save space and ensure protection against vandalism. These hinges are generally used in pairs, meaning that one type L (left-hand) and one type R (right-hand) are used per opening. For higher loads, such as from large hatches, these can be supplemented with additional hinges of either type.
Automated formed-in-place gasket foam process
Formulated to conform to highly intricate metal and plastic components, Fermapor K31 from Sonderhoff USA (now part of Henkel AG & Co.) is a product line of two-component, crosslinking polyurethane formed-in-place (FIP) foam sealants designed to create a barrier gasket that effectively protects industrial assemblies from moisture, dust, dirt, liquids, and other contaminants. Fermapor K31 products offer dramatic cost and performance advantages over prefabricated, manually applied cut gaskets. The technology effectively seals electrical and electronic housings, lighting enclosures, appliances, automotive components, and other contaminant-sensitive consumer and industrial assemblies.
New carbon fiber material for SAAM additive systems from Cincinnati Inc.
Cincinnati Inc. (CI) has released a new carbon fiber resin material for its SAAM (Small Area Additive Manufacturing) fused filament fabrication 3D-printing system. The new material is impact resistant, lightweight, and has a very high strength-to-weight ratio. Carbon fiber reinforcement makes the material stiff, durable, and very low warping -- and advanced inter-layer adhesion results in accurate, quality parts with good dimensions. The material's superior surface finish makes it perfect for custom tooling applications, as well as assembly, CMM, welding, and CNC fixtures.
Learn more about the carbon fiber material.
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Plastic bottle waste turned into ultralight supermaterial with tons of great uses
Researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have made a significant contribution toward resolving the global issue of plastic waste by creating a way to convert plastic bottle waste into aerogels for many useful applications.
Plastic bottles are commonly made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which is the most recycled plastic in the world. The PET aerogels developed by the NUS-led research team using plastic bottle waste -- a world first -- are soft, flexible, durable, extremely light, and easy to handle. They also demonstrate superior thermal insulation and strong absorption capacity. These properties make them attractive for a wide range of applications, such as for heat and sound insulation in buildings, oil spill cleaning, and also as a lightweight lining for firefighter coats and carbon dioxide absorption masks that could be used during fire rescue operations and fire escape.
A team led by researchers from the National University of Singapore has found a way to turn plastic bottle waste into ultralight polyethylene terephthalate (PET) aerogels that are suitable for various applications, including heat insulation and carbon dioxide absorption. From left: Khac Duyen Le; Leung Hoe Inn, Ryan; Nhan Phan-Thien; Hai Minh Duong; Xiwen Zhang. [Credit: National University of Singapore]
This pioneering work was achieved by a research team led by Associate Professor Hai Minh Duong and Professor Nhan Phan-Thien from the Department of Mechanical Engineering at NUS Faculty of Engineering. The technology to produce PET aerogels was developed in collaboration with Dr Xiwen Zhang from the Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech) under the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR).
Recycling plastic bottle waste
Plastic waste is toxic and non-biodegradable. Such waste often ends up in oceans and landfills, affecting marine life and causing problems such as groundwater contamination and land scarcity. Globally, the annual consumption of plastic bottles has been rising steadily, and it is expected to exceed half a trillion tons per year by 2021.
"Plastic bottle waste is one of the most common types of plastic waste and has detrimental effects on the environment. Our team has developed a simple, cost-effective, and green method to convert plastic bottle waste into PET aerogels for many exciting uses. One plastic bottle can be recycled to produce an A4-sized [8.27 in. × 11.7 in.] PET aerogel sheet. The fabrication technology is also easily scalable for mass production. In this way, we can help cut down the harmful environmental damage caused by plastic waste," said Duong.
Versatile PET aerogels
The research team took two years (from August 2016 to August 2018) to develop the technology to fabricate PET aerogels. This work was published in the scientific journal Colloids and Surfaces A in August 2018.
"Our PET aerogels are very versatile. We can give them different surface treatments to customise them for different applications. For instance, when incorporated with various methyl groups, the PET aerogels can absorb large amounts of oil very quickly. Based on our experiments, they perform up to seven times better than existing commercial sorbents, and are highly suitable for oil spill cleaning," said Nhan.
Lighter and safer firefighter coats
Another novel application is to harness the heat insulation property of the PET aerogels for fire safety applications.
Existing firefighter coats are bulky, and they are often used with other breathing and safety equipment. This could take a toll on firefighters, especially during extended operations.
When coated with fire-retardant chemicals, the novel lightweight PET aerogel demonstrates superior thermal resistance and stability. It can withstand temperatures up to 620 C -- this is seven times higher than the thermal lining used in conventional firefighter coats, but weighs only about 10 percent of the weight of a conventional thermal lining. The soft and flexible nature of the PET aerogel also provides greater comfort.
Nhan explained, "By adopting PET aerogels that are coated with fire retardants as a lining material, firefighter coats can be made much lighter, safer, and cheaper. It is also possible to produce low-cost heat-resistant jackets for personal use."
2-in-1 mask that absorbs harmful carbon dioxide and dust particles
When coated with an amine group, the PET aerogel can quickly absorb carbon dioxide from the environment. Its absorption capacity is comparable to materials used in gas masks, which are costly and bulky. To illustrate this application, the team embedded a thin layer of PET aerogel into a commercial fine particle mask to create a prototype mask that can absorb both dust particles and carbon dioxide effectively.
Nhan said, "In highly urbanized countries like Singapore, the carbon dioxide absorption masks and heat-resistant jackets made using PET aerogels can be placed alongside fire extinguishers in high-rise buildings to provide added protection to civilians when they escape from a fire."
"Masks lined with amine-reinforced PET aerogels can also benefit people living in countries such as China, where air pollution and carbon emission are major concerns. Such masks can be easily produced, and can also potentially be made reusable," added Duong.
NUS researchers are also looking into making simple surface modification to the PET aerogels for absorption of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, which is the deadliest component of smoke.
In their earlier work, the research team had successfully converted paper and fashion waste into cellulose and cotton aerogels respectively. Coupled with this latest innovation involving the recycling of plastic bottle waste into aerogels, the NUS team was recently awarded first place in the Sustainable Technologies category of the 2018 Create the Future Design Contest by Tech Briefs.
The research team has filed a patent for its novel PET aerogel technology and will continue to enhance the performance of the PET aerogels and explore new applications. The NUS researchers are also keen to work with companies to bring the technology to market.
Source: National University of Singapore
Published November 2018
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